Masthead header

Blue tit feeding Cornus fruit

Blue tits love feeding on ripe Japanese dogwood (Cornus kousa) fruits; this one has extracted a seed.

Instead of ambling out and photographing whatever turns up, I prefer to have a project with target species to aim for each time I venture out into the field. In this way, I can weave a story around unrelated species by their behaviour or a biological topic. For this blog, I have chosen to write about seed dispersal.

Seeds are dispersed by water, wind and animals.

Water

Iris seeds float on water

Japanese iris (Iris ensata) seeds float hanging from the surface, lit by sun late in the day.

Several aquatic and marginal plants, including aquatic irises, produce seeds that float and get carried away from the parent plant by water currents. On a much bigger scale, the coco de mer from the Seychelles and the coconut are two tropical palms, which produce large fruits that are dispersed by floating in the sea.

Coconut washed ashore in sea

A coconut carried in the sea is washed ashore on a sandy beach in the Seychelles.

Wind

Any plant that produces many wind-born seeds, each with a hairy pappus, can be taken as the wind plucks them from the dry fruit casing. This is most effective when shot against the light. Both milkweed and rosebay willow herb make good subjects here.

Milkweed seed pod splits to release hairy seeds

Milkweed (Asclepias) pod splits to release parachute seeds dispersed by wind.

When seeds of trees or vines with large bracts or wings are released from their fruits, they descend more slowly in a zigzag motion, which helps to ensure they drop down away from the parent plant. Capturing these seeds in mid-flight in the field is  not impossible, but can be time consuming.  The flying gourd seeds were taken in the studio using a light trip beam and high speed flash.

Giant winged seeds dispersed by windThe flying gourd or Javan cucumber (Alsomitra macrocarpa) from Malay Archipelago has giant winged seeds.

Dispersal of poppy seeds takes place when the capsule dries out and pores open in a circle near the top. When the wind blows the stem back and forth, seeds are thrown out like a hand shaking a pepper pot.

Mechanicl dispersal poppy seeds from capsule

Seed scattered from Welsh poppy (Meconopsis cambrica) capsule by stalk shaken in wind.

Animals

Many animals disperse seeds by gorging on ripe fruits and passing seeds out through their gut. When acorns and chestnuts are ripe, squirrels busily collect them from beneath trees, carrying them away to bury in the ground as a cache for later retrieval. Some are never unearthed and this is how oak and chestnuts seedlings appear in lawns or verges far removed from the parent tree.

Squirrel carries chesnut to cache

A grey squirrel carries sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) fruit in mouth to cache in ground.

Any animals that feast on seeds within attractive fruits still on the tree, reduce the number of intact seeds for germination. However, in the process some are loosened and drop to the ground. At Kew Gardens, squirrels and ravens have learnt to wait beneath sweet chestnut trees when parakeets are feeding above for an easy bounty to fall.

Dormouse feeds at night on blackberry

Dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) feeds on blackberries in autumn.

Animals eating fruit makes a much more interesting image than fruit alone and in this case longer lenses will be needed. In places where wildlife is habituated to humans, a 300mm lens maybe enough; elsewhere at least 400mm or even a 500mm lens will be better for achieving successful shots without animals being spooked.

Blackbird eats red yew aril

Blackbird (Turdus merula) with gelatinous red yew aril that contains a single seed.

Animals, as well as and humans, also aid dispersal of  hooked seeds and fruits that become attached to their fur, feathers or clothing.  These include small round cleavers (also known as clinging sweethearts), burdock and wood avens. When turn-ups were once fashionable on men’s trousers, many seeds ended up in turn-ups not tucked into boots.

Hooked seeds picked up by passing animals

Hooked achenes of wood avens (Geum urbanum) are readily picked up in the fur of passing mammals.

Some seeds have large hooks that become impaled in hooves or fetlocks of ungulates where they can result in injury or infection. Eventually the seed is released – often at some distance from where it was picked up.

Devils claw largest hitchhiking fruit

The world’s largest hitchhiking fruit is devil’s claw (Proboscidea parviflora) from North America.

Here are just a few examples of seed dispersal and autumn is a good time to look around for others, especially on trees and shrubs.

Thanks for reading!

HA signature low Res

Bee fly feeds on honesty

A bee-fly (Bombylius major) withdraws its pollen-coated proboscis from an honesty flower (Lunaria annua).

Observing and photographing pollinators can be very rewarding and sometimes most frustrating! Digital capture of stills or video, aids pollination studies by providing instant feedback. Also, the date and time of capture and on some cameras – the GPS – are all retained with the metadata that travels with digital files.

Aztec parakeet eats mother of cocoa flower Mexico

An Aztec parakeet is an anti-pollinator when it eats mother of cocoa flowers, Mexico. Nikon 70-200mm + X2 teleconverter.

A photograph of any organism visiting a flower does not necessarily prove pollination has taken place; nonetheless, it may reveal whereabouts on the body pollen gets picked up. If that visitor is seen moving onto another flower, it may be possible to capture the moment when the pollen load makes contact with the stigma.

A hoverfly carries pollen on feet to lily

A marmalade hoverfly (Episyrphus balteatus) carries pollen on feet approaching a Sargent’s lily (Lilium sargentiae) with pollen load on stigma.

During the last six years, virtually all my fieldwork has been spent observing and photographing pollinators both in Britain and abroad. Insects are more often disturbed if you approach when they first alight on the flower. Once they have switched from flight mode to feeding mode, they are less likely to take evasive action.

Carpenter bee feeds on Tylosema fassoglensis in Tanzania

A female giant carpenter bee Xylocopa nigrita forages on a Tylosema fassoglensis flower Udzungwa Mountain Nat. Park, Tanzania

Regardless of the visitor’s size, I use a digital SLR camera. For smaller insects such as bees, flies and hoverflies I opt for a 105mm macro lens that allows me to get up to life size images of these insects together with the flower they are visiting. Moving in close, the whole insect will not appear sharply defined unless the lens is stopped down to a smaller aperture to enhance the depth of field. On dull days, this may mean increasing the ISO to gain an exposure with a shutter speed of at least 1/250 second (to arrest the motion of an active insect) and an aperture of  f/8 to f/16. I tend to use a pair of small macro flashes controlled by a wireless trigger, to boost the available light, which adds to the crispness of the final image.

Bumblebee forages on flowering rush

White-tailed bumblebee (Bombus lucorum) forages on flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) nectar. Pollen picked up on feet and wings is transferred to stigmas of next flower the bee visits.

For larger visitors – from bigger butterflies to birds – I use telephoto lenses.  My most versatile is the 70-200mm + X2 teleconverter, which gives me effectively a 70-400mm lens.

My aim is to capture a clear view of every visitor making contact with the anthers or depositing pollen on the stigma. A butterfly taken from overhead with spread-out wings hiding the proboscis could simply be sunbathing on the flower rather than feeding.

Porterweed attracts many visitors here a moth & a hummingbird

Visitors attracted to porterweed (Stachytarpheta frantzii) include hummingbirds, day-flying moths, butterflies and bees in Costa Rica.

Here are my top 10 tips for photographing pollinators

  • Observe how insects forage before you photograph, so you can seek the best camera angle.
  • Avoid a stop/start staccato approach; move towards flower continuously, stop only when close enough to lean slowly forwards.
  • When handholding a digital SLR camera, switch on Image Stabilisation (IS) or VR to reduce risk of camera shake.
  • Most insects rarely linger on flowers, so setting up a tripod is impractical, but a monopod reduces the strain of handholding a camera with a long lens for a long period.
Cape sugarbird reaches for nectar in pincushion protea

As a male Cape sugarbird (Promerops cafer) reaches for nectar in pincushion protea (Leucospermum cordifolium) pollen presenters deposit pollen on the head.

  • Crouch down for insects feeding on low flowers. If kneeling on one knee, the other can support the elbow of the hand holding the weight of the camera, leaving a free hand for additional camera support and shutter release.
Anther deposits Nigella pollen on the topside of honeybee

A honeybee and bumblebee forage for nectar on love-in-a-mist (Nigella damascena) flower. Topside of honeybee picks up pollen from underside of anthers.

  • Use a long focus telephoto lens for larger butterflies and bird pollinators to increase the working distance thereby reducing the risk of spooking them.
  • A side view of honeybees and other bees that collect pollen on the hind legs will show the colour of the pollen load.
  • For butterflies, moths and bee-flies a head-on or side view will show the long proboscis inserted into the flower to reach the nectar.
  • The more time you invest in watching pollinators the more likely you are to gain a higher percentage of informative images.
  • Gain enhanced depth field by taking a focus stack of a static flower in constant lighting
Honeybee smothered in pollen from winter box in winter

Honeybee (Apis mellifera) covered in pollen as it feeds on sweet box (Sarcococca confusa) flowers, which emit a heady fragrance in winter.

One word of warning – watching and photographing pollinators can become very addictive!

More images here and in my book Pollination Power

Thanks for reading!

HA signature low Res

Killer whale silhouette Canada

Orca or killer whale (Orcinus orca) male surfacing at dusk, showing large dorsal fin, British Columbia, Cananda

Dagger-like they emerged from the sea silhouetted after the sun had set. The dorsal fin of the killer whale is unmistakable – however it is lit. When a pod surfaces and is viewed from the side, the fins move like scimitars flashing through water.

One of the best locations in the world for observing killer whales or orcas lies between Canada’s British Columbia coastline and Vancouver Island. These whales have been extensively studied and lateral views of the dorsal fin and the saddle patch below are known to be unique for each individual. This means that the movement of individual orcas can be tracked using photo ID images.

Whale watching invariably involves long periods of staring at an apparently lifeless sea, interspersed by short periods of great activity. So it is essential not to waste time changing lenses. I work with two camera bodies, fitted with a 100 –300mm and a 200–400mm lens. Both these images were taken with film.

Guidelines for safe whale-watching recommend no vessel should approach closer than 100 metres. It’s a bonus when whales move in closer and the captain aligns the boat so that orcas swim past the setting sun for a magical dusk shoot.

 

Killer whales at dusk

Orcas at dusk : a pod killer whales (Orcinus orca) emerge from te sea in fading light, British Columbia, Canada

Thanks for reading

HA signature low Res

Svartifoss waterfall Iceland Skaftafell

Base of Svartifoss taken in 1981 crashing onto broken black basalt columns, with a 200mm lens using a 1 second exposure.

If you like shooting waterfalls, you should visit Iceland. Without doubt, they are the jewels in Iceland’s crown.  In this land of the midnight sun, you have light 24/7 in high summer in the high latitudes and the indirect light after the sun dips below the horizon is perfect for some falls.  Also, the prolonged winter ensures there is a good chance that waterfalls will freeze partly if not completely, with the added interest of icicles forming.

Svartifoss waterfall Iceland

A vertical format captures the complete fall,  narrow lip and basalt columns

If I had to choose an Icelandic waterfall it would have to be Svartifoss.  Probably because it was the first one I photographed more than three decades ago using Kodachrome 25 filmstock. To reach the most famous waterfall in Skaftafell National Park, it is accessed from the southern ring road and requires an hour’s uphill hike.

Svartifoss Iceland waterfall

A horizontal panoramic format on an XPan camera shows the basalt columns dominate the setting.

Unique is often misused, but Svartifoss IS unique with the black curved basalt column wall forming a spectacular partial amphitheatre behind it.  The first time I saw it, I was with a botanist who never hinted about the breath-taking sight of the relatively narrow fall crashing down onto broken black columns.

Svartifoss waterfall Iceland

Detail of sombre basalt columns behind Svartifoss with little vegetation.

Using a slow shutter speed to capture large volume waterfalls does not work since they discharge so much water, there is no subtle rendering of the solid white mass. On the other hand, a small volume appears as a thin veil of water creating a see-through curtain with a slow shutter speed.

Svartifoss Iceland waterfall

A Hasselblad square format incorporates the largest area of green on any image.

Each time I visit Svartifoss I try to find a new viewpoint.  By varying the focal length and using every format possible from square to landscape, portrait and panoramic, it is possible to capture images that can be used for different purposes including a book cover, a website banner and to illustrate web and print articles.

Svartifoss waterfall Iceland

A  Hasselblad shot shows a full frontal of base falling onto broken columns and was the front jacket for my  book How to Photograph Water.

 

Facts and figures

Height: 20 metres

Location: Skaftafell National Park

Fed by: ice-cold meltwater from Svinafellsjokull in the Skeiðará River

On one trip when travelling with my son, Giles, we decided to specialise in waterfalls.  Jon Kr Gunnarsson’s book Icelandic waterfalls was a godsend for planning our route as it features 237 falls marked on regional maps. This invaluable source of information is no longer in print. However, I have discovered the informative website covering European waterfalls features 184 in Iceland, each with the location, height and rating, plus several photos and further information.

Sartifoss waterfall Iceland

A long lens homes in on the black basalt rocks, but it does not have quite the same quality of my first image taken face on with a greater volume of glacial melt water.

References

On one trip when travelling with my son, Giles, we decided to specialise in waterfalls.  Jon Kr Gunnarsson’s book Icelandic waterfalls was a godsend for planning our route as it features 237 falls marked on regional maps. This invaluable source of information is no longer in print.

However, I have discovered the informative website covering European waterfalls features 184 in Iceland, each with the location, height and rating, plus several photos and further information.

I shall be returning to capture Svartifoss in other seasons.

Thanks for reading!

HA signature low Res

 

 

 

My latest book – Pollination Power – was published in September 2015  by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Signed copies are available (UK customers only) from the  Shop.

It was a Finalist for Book Photographer of the Year in the Garden Media Guild 2015 Awards

Pollination Power is a beautiful and informative insight into the hidden secrets of plant pollination”  BBC Wildlife Magazine January 2016

“Heather Angel has over the course of a long career written her story in hundreds of thousands of images that have served to inform us, enlighten us and elevate our spirits.” Gray Levett, Editor, Nikon Owner Magazine

Below is a selection of images taken at Kew, in my Surrey garden and overseas.

 

01 Pollination Power Heather Angel

In addition to honeybees, many different types of insects pollinate flowers. They include bumblebees, solitary bees, wasps, beetles, hoverflies, flies, bee-flies, butterflies and moths. Below is a selection showing how pollen is transferred to varied parts of the body. Another post will show some vertebrate pollinators.

Bumblebee with dark blue and a plum hue pollen load foraging on oriental poppy, Papaver orientale

A bumblebee forages for pollen in an oriental poppy (Papaver orientale) with a large load in a pollen basket, RBG Kew, Surrey

 

As female wool carder bee enters Digitalis ferruginea she gets a pollen load on her head

When a female wool-carder bee (Anthidium manicatum) enters a rusty foxglove flower (Digitalis ferruginea) the anthers deposit pollen onto her head and thorax, RBG Kew, Surrey

 

Bee fly feeds on nectar from primrose

Bee-flies (Bombilius major) emerge as primroses open – one of several spring flowers pollinated by these insects, Surrey

 

Bumblebee scarabs Amphicoma (Pygopleurus) vulpes mating in Tulipa armena flower Turkey. Note pollen dispersed on inside of flower with a little on the beetles. Nr Karabet Pass

Bumblebee scarabs Amphicoma (Pygopleurus) vulpes meet and mate in Tulipa armena flower, where pollen is dispersed inside the flower and some on the beetles, Turkey

 

Hoverfly feeding on lily pollen

When a marmalade hoverfly (Episyrphus balteatus) feeds on sticky lily pollen, some gets picked up on its feet, from where it is transferred to the stigma of another lily that the insect visits, Surrey

 

Pineapple lily Eucomis bicolor from South Africa

Carrion flies are attracted to the foetid smell produced by this pineapple lily (Eucomis bicolor) from South Africa and pick up pollen on each side of the thorax as they reach for the nectar, Surrey

 

Wings on a Chinese peacock butterfly pick up pollen as the insect feeds on Hibiscus in Yunnan, China

As a swallowtail butterfly sips nectar from a hibiscus flower in China, the vibrating wings pick up pollen on their undersides

Signed copies are available (UK customers only) from my Shop

  • February 7, 2016 - 6:01 pm

    Natasha - Stunning photos! This was such an interesting post to read through too – I can’t believe I’ve only just found your photography. Love that final shot of the swallowtail. – TashaReplyCancel

    • February 8, 2016 - 3:07 pm

      Heather - Thanks Tasha. I was thrilled to get the swallowtail in China as it did not hang around.ReplyCancel

  • May 15, 2016 - 8:21 am

    Sandra - Your photos are just superb, Heather. I have been looking around here on your blog in all its nooks and crannies. So inspiring and beautiful. Your latest book on the power of pollination looks just lovely!

    All the images above are just breathtaking. I especially love the bumblebee on the red poppy and how you caught the pollen flowing away from the snowdrop.ReplyCancel

    • May 15, 2016 - 6:50 pm

      xpolar - Thanks Sandra. Now working on an even more ambitious pollination book – loving exploring new sites, discovering new flowers and pollinators here and abroad.ReplyCancel